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Esselen Tribe of Monterey County
Technical Report



ESSELEN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

compiled by D.L. Shaul


EsselenEnglishComments
a'ai (postp.)across, beyond
achepa (v.)to join
a'ha (n.)eyes
aha'ya (n.)father
ahur (n.)tooth
ake (v.)laugh
akala (n.)that (demonstrative)
alexepa (v.)wake up
akxepaki (adj.)awake
akxi (v.)arise, get up
alaki (adj.)dark
a'lam (pn)he, she, it
alepas (v.)none (there is), be none
alexapa (n.)be stupid
alpa (v.)speak, talk; pray
ama'ene (n.)field, meadow, clearing
amano (num.)four
amheni (n.)necklace
ampa (v.)eat
ami'chanax (n.)grass, plant(s)
amichaski (adj.)green
ami'sax (n.)deer
amitatsi (n.)venison
amu (n.)end
amupa (v.)to end, finish
amuxe (n.)flour
amumut (v.)done, be; finished, be
amutata (n.)stars *
an- (prefix)un-
ana (excl.)no
ana'i (pn)nothing
analexapa (v.)be intelligent, smart
analai (n.)toad
analaisax (n.)frog
anamupa (v.)to begin, start
anaselki (adj.)dry
aniwis (n.)enemy
anax (n.)fire, coals
anayawa (n.)swordfish
aneme (pn)they, those
anemu (adv.)in front
anemuno (adv.)ahead
anhilapa (v.)be unhappy, sad
aniki (pn)that (near)
ankolo (v.)to hate, detest
anish (pn)her, his, its
aniwa (pn)those (near)
aniwis (n.)enemy
a'nix (n.)bothersome one, nuisance
annakinampa (v.)to unfasten, untie
anpapia (v.)unable, cannot
anpeki (adj.)separate{unintelligible:       apart}
anputuki (adj.)light (not heavy)
antu'i (v.)to sell
aosapa (v.)birth (give)
apitmakus (n.)cooking basket
apskula! (excl.)look!, lookout!
apxatsku (n.)guts, intestines
asanax (n.)water
asatsa (n.)day
asatsano, in (adv.)today in asatsano [on this day]
aselki (adj.)wet
ashi (n.)sun, ray (of light)
ashiski (adj.)yellow
ashitupxu {adv.}west{Hopi direction/color?}
ashiyaxa {adv.}east
asumpa (v.)flow, float; fly
asumpapis (n.)airplane
atimu (n.)star
atinia (v.)be sleepy
ausai (adv.)above
awa (n.)face
ayola (n.)hill
cha'a (v.)exist, be; dwell, live, stay
chaha (n.) smoke
chahapa (v.)to smoke
chai (n.)owl
chalola'si (n.)stream, creek, brook
chap-his (n.)bird
chawa (n.)crayfish, lobster
chawisax (n.)backbone, spine
che'e (n.)mother
chemepsha (n.)whale
chempa (v.)to paint; to write
chichu (n.)otter
chili (excl.)let's!, let!
chimash (v.)(have) sexual intercourse
chisi (n.)cottontail rabbit
chunepa (v.)perishsee moho
efempa (v.)to bury
efes (adv.)only, truly
efexe (n.)person
efexis (n.)person
ehepas (n.)blanket, robe
ekshuso'yi (v.)farting
elpa (v.)to feel, to sense
elpapis (n.)intelligent, smart one
eminapa (v.)to put onclothing, etc.
ene (pn)I
eskeli (n.)soleof foot
espia (v.)become
etse (v.)to drink
ewaimitano (adv.)forever
ewakaski (adj.)equal
ewakawa (adv.)equally, evenly
exehawiki (n.)husband{nishexe*}
exenoch (n.)man
exepana (n.)boy, son
exesax (n.)grandfather
exwepa (v.)to return
foila (v.)be healthy
ha- (pref.)it, themverb prefix
hachoxpa (v.)be a devil, devilish
ha'i (pn)any, some
naka (n.)body haircf. xisi
halakal (n.)mussels, barnacles
halas (adv.), post.under, below
hamakshu (n.)food
hanahi (postp.)intoiwano hanahi [into the house]
haniki (adv.)there
ha'as (n.)oak
hashopa (v.)to scratch
hawi (v.)be married
hawiki (n.)spouse, married person
he'ex (n.)squirrel
hekei (pn.)something
hekepa (conj.)in order to, so that; because
helelki (adj.)lightin color
heleski (adj.)white
hi'i (n.)flower
hikpa (v.)to see
hilapa (v.)be glad, happy
hiskisi (n.)buttock, hip
hitita (n.)coat
hochis (n.)nose
hoske (n.)nostril(s)
hushumas (n.)dog
huiniki (pn.)someone, somebody
hulin (adv.)again, also
hummux (n.)wolf
humulpa (v.)to tell, relate
huwa (v.)agree, assent, consent, give permission
i'apa (n.)grandmother
i'i (n.)wood, stick
ichi (n.)sister
ike (excl.)yes
iknish* (n.)sacred root
ilex (n.)sand, gravel, pebbles
imasas (adv.)when?, sometime
imila (n.)sea, ocean
imilano (n.)baysea
imita (n.)sky
imitaski (adj.)blue
imusa (n.)hole
iniki (pn.)this
iniwa (pn.)these
ipimi (n.)root
ipisiksha (n.)snake
isamis (n.)virgin
isanax (n.)door
ishi (n.)mouth
ishka (n.)raven
ishpa (v.)to bake, roast
ishpasha'at (n.)roasting pan, trough
ishtolo (v.)to sleep by the fire
isikis (n.)mother-in-law
iskoti (n.)beard, whiskers
iti'anax (n.)belly, stomach
itimpa (v.)to stand, be standing
itsu (n.)afternoon, evening
iwa'aha (n.)window
iwano (n.)house, building
iwis (n.)friendbrother-in-law, sister-in-law
ixai (n.)pine
iya (n.)bone
iyampas (n.)seed(s)
iyu (v.)come
-k (suf.)be (equational)John exenoch-k [John is a man.]
ka (conj.)(makes a question)Ka exenoch ampa tatsi? [Is the man eating (the) meat?]
ka'a (n.)tobacco
kakalu (n.)large crowravin
kakarush (n.)crow
kalul (n.)fish
kapana (n.)reed, tule
kashiak (adv.)why?
katski (adv.)why?
katusnax (n.)lips
kawai (n.)horse
kawo (n.)penis
kayinipsha (n.)chicken
-ke (verb suf.)don'tused with an- An'ampa-ke! [Don't eat!]
kele (n.)foot
kes (conj.)or
ketspam (adv.)to where
keya (adv.)where, somewhere
kia (adv.)perhaps, maybe
kia'alpa (v.)to ask, question
kia'elpa (v.)to be afraid, to fear, be uneasy, nervous
kiakit (pn.)what
kilinai (n.)salmon
kinia (pn.)who
klachi (n.)abalone
kolo (v.)to love
koloicha (n.)tunafish
koltala (n.)bearanimal
kominam (pn.)all
konumis (adv.)how many?, how much?
koso (v.)sit, sit down
kosoki (v.)be sitting
koxki (adj.)hot
koxno (adv.)south
ku'ux (n.)bottle, jug, canteen
kuchun (n.)1. Arroyo Seco. 2. arroyo, canyon
kueno (adv.)far
kumal (n.)knife
kumalyes (n.)arrowhead
kumul (n.)quail
kushe (n.)manogrinding stone
kxamakx-elenai (num.)fourteen
kxamakx-tomoilaforty
kxamakxus (num.)four
kxamakxus-walanainine
kxatasax (n.)head
kxulak-elenai (num.)twelve
kxulak-walanai (num.)seven
kxulak-walanai-tomoilaseventy
kxulef (num.)three
kxulep-elenai (num.)thirteen
kxulep-tomoila (num.)thirty
kxulep-walanai (num.)eight
kxulep-walanai-tomoilaeighty
lach (pn.)they
lachi (pn.)them
laha (v.)to carry
lai (adv.)here
lakai (conj.)and
lakam (conj.)but, however
lalihesi (n.)old man
lamhoko (adv.)during, while
las- (pre.)honorableadded or prefix to noun
lasapa (v.)bathe, wash
lasha'u (n.)father-in-law
lanya (v.)consist of, be made
lawa'ef (adv.)yesterday
lawis (n.)tree
lax (pn.)their
lech (pn.)we
lechi (pn.)us
lelima (n.)dance, ceremonykoltala lelima esselen [esselen bear dance] {cf. kotala mefpa esselen}
lepa (v.)to be called, to be named
lex (pn.)our
lohoyisi (v.)arrive
loliki (adj.)beautiful, pretty
lotos (n.)arrow, bullet
loxma (v.)to think
lulusax (n.)arm(s)
luchmatsa (n.)hell, underworld
lushumpa (v.)to build a fire
-ma (suf.)with (in the company of)exenoch hamaha {hamaha -ma} [with the man]
-manu (suf.)with, by means ofi'i hamanu [with the stick]
ma (v.)kill
ma'ali (adv.)notExenoch ma'ali ampu tatsi. {SOV = Exenoch tatsi ma'ali ampu} The man is not eating the meat]
machi (excl.)who knows?
machkas (n.)coyote
machkasax (n.)badger
mahiwa (n.)eagle
maka (v.)be sick
make (v.)to return, come back
makel (n.)rat
makhalana (n.)salt
makola (n.)saliva
ma'pa (v.)to gossip
malpapisi (n.)gossiper
mamakelenai (num.)fifteen
mantaki (adv.)never
manaleneipa (v.)forget
mantaxite (v.)be true
map (n.)name
mashapa (adv.)today
mashaipa (v.)be hungry
masianax (n.)soul
matsa (n.)earth, land, country; floor
matsaski (adj.)brown, orange
Matshaipa (n.)Anglo(s)
matsexo (n.)snow
mawipa (v.)to sing
mawpa (v.)be tired
maxa'iyu (v.)to bleed
maxana (n.)blood
maxanaski (adj.)red
mech (n.)cloud(s)
mechix (n.)aunt
mechfa (v.)to believe
mefpa (v.)to dance
mekelepsha (n.)salamander
memnen (n.)lizard
mepxel (n.)body
mesa (n.)table; desk
metxi (n.)grandfather
mexe (n.)ground squirrel
micha (pn.)youobject
mi'its (n.)brotherolder cf. xepna
mish (pn.)yoursingular
miskatas (n.)cat
miskia (adv.)probably
mislaya (adv.)a lot, much, very
mis'utu (n.)ice
moho (v.)diesee chunepa
mohoki (adj.)dead
momo (v.)must
mumirux (n.)fliesinsect
na'ai (adv.), post.between
-nahi (suf.)intoiwano hanahi [into the house]
nakinampa (v.)to fasten, tie
name (sg. pn.)you
namech (pl. pn.)you
namechi (obj. pn.)you
namex (pl. pn.)your
namoes (v.)cure, purify
namoespis (n.)shaman
nasi (conj.)then
naxa (adv.), post.along
naxam (adv.), post.against, next tonaxampa [to touch]
naxano (adv.), post.among
nehipa (v.)to walk
nemu (adv.), post.back, behind
nemulam (adv.)back, back toNemulam ene nenilala [I will go back]
nemuno (adv.), post.afternemunahi [backward]
nenepasax (n.)hoof, paw(s)
neni (v.)to go
nenipis (n.)car, automobile
nicha (pn.)me
nish (pn.)my
-no (suf.)at, in; for (the benefit of)iwano hano [at/in the house] exenoch hano [for the man]
ochololsa (n.)lamprey
oloipa (v.)to obey
opa (v.)be a certain way, be like, be thus John Harry no opa [John is like Harry]
opalpa (v.)to answer, reply
opapus (n.)sealanimal
ot (n.)heavenotno [in heaven]
otsoipsha (n.)ant
owepas (v.)be amiable, likeable, nice
pachki (adj.)bad
pachspa (v.)do sin, misdeed
pachwa (adv.)badly, poorly
pakunax (n.)bowfor arrows
palaka (n.)mosquito
palatsa (n.)acorn; corn
pama (n.)metate, mortar
-pami (suf.)to, toward (hapami)iwana hapami [to the house]
pamuko (n.)hat
pana (n.)child, son
panasis (n.)baby, infant
papia (v.)be able, can, could
pashishi (n.)dolphin, porpoise
patama (n.)headman, chief
pawi (n.)spear
pawis (n.)tail
pek (num.)one
pek-efexetes (num.)twenty{one-person}
pek-walanai (num.)six
pek-walanai-tomoilasixty
pekmakx-tomoila (num.)fifty
pekmakxala (num.)five
pektin (n.), adv.1. unity, union, society; 2. together
pekwalana (v.)to count
peshish (num.)sixteen
pokanisi (v.)lie down, go to bed
poko (v.)sleep
pokomanu (n.)bed, sleeping bag
polohikpa (v.)to dream
polokoni (n.)grass hopper
polomo (n.)mountain
powa (v.)to blow
powapisi (n.)wind
powama (v.)to breathe
powamaki (adj.)alive
poxwela (v.)to cough
pulpa (v.)to boil, cook
pulpulki (adj.)boiling
putuki (adj.)heavy; full
sahu (v.)to bite
sakxe (v.)wake someone up
salamaki (adj.)pregnant
saleki (adj.)good
salewa (adv.)well
sanax (n.)river
sanaxan (n.)gull
sanpeki (adj.)broken
sanpekpa (v.)to break
sasipi (v.)to avoid
sawu (v.)to look, watch
sha'at (n.)pot, pan
shaka (n.)winnowing basket
shampa (v.)to run
shanax (n.)fog, mist
shanasho (n.)dogx shushu
shashlana (n.)raccoon
shawa (v.)cry, weep; shout
sheche (n.)grass/plant roots used for basketry
shefe (n.)rock, stone
shekesipsha (n.)hawk
shexosax (n.)breast, chest
shikili (n.)tar, oil, gasoline
shilik (n.)dove, pigeon
sholeta (n.)girl, daughter
shoshoyo (v.)to hurry
shuknash (n.)pipe
shuknaspa (v.)to smoke (tobacco)
shushu (n.)dogx shanasho
shushu'ipsha (n.)sea otter
sihapa (n.)to do, make
sihapis (n.)machine[doing thing]
sikoswa (adv.)around
sinu (adv.)only
sinuki (adj.)particular; single; alone
sipuchan (n.)linnetfish
sixiha (n.)vagina, womb
-ski (suf.)be like, similarJohn Harry-s-ki (John is like Harry)
sospa (v.)to judge, evaluate
suxisa (v.)be angry
suhuki (adj.)spotted
suiyuhu (v.)to bet, gamble
slaha (v.)to bring
sma (v.)beat, hit
soski (n.)judgementevaluation
stala (v.)to bend
sutuki (adj.)cold
sutuno (adv.)north
-ta (hata) (suf.)fromiwano hata (from the house)
ta'a (v.)to find
tahawiki (n.)wife
taheiya (v.)to honor, esteem, like
takampa (v.)to hunt
takampis (n.)hunter
takdamapa (v.)to fish
talanax (n.)elbow, knee
talin (n.)trout
taloma (n.)wildcat
talox (n.)target, goal
tamakapa (v.)to suffer, hurt
tanani (n.)gopher
tanoch (n.)woman
tapana (n.)girl
tatsi (n.)meat
taxaupa (v.)to keep, guard
taxosa (v.)to wait
teipa (conj.)until
teipas (conj.)as, whileneni teipas (while going)
temech (n.)shark
tenimpa (v.)to joke
teposhke (v.)to faint
tetelpa (v.)command, order
tihak (post.)as (in the capacity of)efexe tihak (as a person)
tihikpa (v.)to flirt
tikas (n.)heart
timama (v.)be dizzy, drunk
tinero (n.)money
tolaxpa (v.)to aim
tomanis (n.)night
tomanis'ashi (n.)moon[night sun]
tomoila (num.)ten
tox (n.)ashes
toxesa (v.)to give
toxski (adj.)gray
toyoxul (conj.)before
tsa'a (n.)uncle
tsekes (n.)hide, skin
tsetselkamati (n.)rattlesnake
tsewin (n.)mush, bread
tsila (n.)water-tight basket
tsumir (n.)cypres, juniper
tu'i (v.)buy, purchase
tuchulis (n.)finger
tumas-achpa (n.)devil
tumaski (adj.)black
tupur (n.)sardine
tupxu (v.)go down, descend
tutsu (n.)niece, nephew
tuxus (n.)ear(s)
u'iyan (n.)old woman
ukui (v.)to shoot
ukushpa (v.)to unload, take out
ukxuski (adj.)little, small
ulasax (pn.)both
ulax (num.)two
uloxi (n.)nails, claws
umasas (conj.)if
umunipsha (n.)hummingbird
wakas (n.)cow
wakasiwa (n.)barn
wakastaxau (n.)cowboy
wekhe'e (n.)thigh(s)
welel (n.)tongue; language, word
wishpa (v.)to brush, sweep, comb, rake
wowel (n.)neck
woxehawi (n.)flea
wulkasax (n.)boat, canoe, ship
xatam (adv., post.)near, about (concerning)
xekes (n.)mountain lion
xelusef (n.)pocket knife
xemelki (adj.)clear, distinct, distinctive
xemelwa (adv.)clearly, distinctly
xepna (n.)younger brothersee mi'its
xetsa (n.)light[photons]
xilaki (adj.)excited
xisi (n.)head hair
xu'iyu (v.)to jump
xumapa (v.)to steal, rob
xushu (n.)hand(s)
xuxuma (v.)to fall
xuxuwai (adv.)down, below
ya (adv.)already
yakalpa (v.)to leave, exit
yakiski (adj.)big, large
yaxampa (v.)to ascend, go up
yeyexim (n.)pelican
yuki'i (n.)board, pole
yukla (v.)to take
yulax (n.)plain, valley
{comments by hummux}
* inserted by hummux